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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights, Legitimacy, and the Use of Force   17/3/2010, 4:41 pm




Human Rights, Legitimacy, and the Use of Force
By Allen Buchanan
Oxford University Press, 2010

352 pages
1.8mb


The thirteen essays by Allen Buchanan collected here are arranged in such a way as to make evident their thematic interconnections: the important and hitherto unappreciated relationships among the nature and grounding of human rights, the legitimacy of international institutions, and the justification for using military force across borders. Each of these three topics has spawned a significant literature, but unfortunately has been treated in isolation. In this volume Buchanan makes the case for a holistic, systematic approach, and in so doing constitutes a major contribution at the intersection of International Political Philosophy and International Legal Theory.

A major theme of Buchanan's book is the need to combine the philosopher's normative analysis with the political scientist's focus on institutions. Instead of thinking first about norms and then about institutions, if at all, only as mechanisms for implementing norms, it is necessary to consider alternative packages consisting of norms and institutions. Whether a particular norm is acceptable can depend upon the institutional context in which it is supposed to be instantiated, and whether a particular institutional arrangement is acceptable can depend on whether it realizes norms of legitimacy or of justice, or at least has a tendency to foster the conditions under which such norms can be realized. In order to evaluate institutions it is necessary not only to consider how well they implement norms that are now considered valid but also their capacity for fostering the epistemic conditions under which norms can be contested, revised, and improved.

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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Ten Common Questions About Intellectual Property and Human Rights   17/3/2010, 4:47 pm



Ten Common Questions About Intellectual Property and Human Rights

Peter K. Yu
Drake University Law School
Georgia State University Law Review, Vol. 23, 2007, pp. 709-53
Michigan State University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 04-27


Abstract:
With the continuous expansion of intellectual property rights, there is a growing need for the development of a human rights framework for intellectual property rights. Such a framework is not only socially beneficial, but will enable the development of a balanced intellectual property system that takes human rights obligations into consideration. Developing such a framework, however, is not easy and has raised many difficult questions. Some of these questions are foundational, some of them conceptual, and the remainder merely implementational.


This article tackles in turn ten questions the author has frequently encountered when he discusses the development of a human rights framework for intellectual property rights. It is his hope that a better understanding of the answers to these questions will help promote a constructive and fruitful dialogue concerning of the interplay of intellectual property and human rights.

The ten questions explored in this article are:
(1) Are intellectual property rights human rights?
(2) Besides access to medicines, are there other intellectual property issues that implicate the protection of human rights?
(3) Should the human rights debate separate patents from copyrights?
(4) Are all forms of intellectual property rights human rights?
(5) Can corporations claim protection of the right to the protection of interests in intellectual creations?
(6) Does the right to private property already protect interests in intellectual creations?
(7) Can human rights interests be built into the intellectual property system?
(Cool Will the human rights framework ratchet up existing intellectual property protection?
(9) Will the human rights framework benefit indigenous peoples and traditional communities?
(10) Will the human rights framework benefit less developed countries?

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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Global Basic Rights   17/3/2010, 4:49 pm



Global Basic Rights
By Charles R. Beitz, Robert E. Goodin
Oxford University Press 2009

272 Pages
1 mb


Politically, as well as philosophically, concerns with human rights have permeated many of the most important debates on social justice worldwide for fully a half-century. Henry Shue's 1980 book on Basic Rights proved to be a pioneering contribution to those debates, and one that continues to elicit both critical and constructive comment. Global Basic Rights brings together many of the most influential contemporary writers in political philosophy and international relationsCharles Beitz, Robert Goodin, Christian Reus-Smit, Andrew Hurrell, Judith Lichtenberg, Elizabeth Ashford, Thomas Pooge, Neta Crawford, Richard Miller, David Luban, Jeremy Waldron and Simon Caneyto explore some of the most challenging theoretical and practical questions that Shue's work provokes. These range from the question of the responsibilities of the global rich to redress severe poverty to the permissibility of using torture to gain information to fight international terrorism. The contributors explore the continuing value of the idea of basic rights in understanding moral challenges as diverse as child labor and global climate change.

About the Author
Charles R. Beitz is Edwards S. Sanford Professor of Politics at Princeton University and the Editor of Philosophy Public Affairs. He has written books and articles in global political theory (The Idea of Human Rights, OUP 2009; Political Theory and International Relations, rev. ed. 1999) and democratic theory (Political Equality, 1989). He has been a Guggenheim Fellow and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.


Robert E. Goodin is Distinguished Professor of Social Political Theory and Philosophy in the Research School of Social Sciences at Australian National University. He is a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy, founding editor of The Journal of Political Philosophy and general editor of the ten-volume series of Oxford Handbooks of Political Science. His work straddles democratic theory (Reflective Democracy, OUP 2003; Innovating Democracy, OUP 2008), empirical welfare-state studies (The Real Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, 1999; Discretionary Time, 2008) and theoretical reflections on public policy (Social Welfare as an Individual Responsibility, 1998; What's Wrong with Terrorism? 2006).

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[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


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Or
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ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
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د. فـرغلى هــارون


عدل سابقا من قبل algohiny في 17/3/2010, 5:21 pm عدل 1 مرات
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مُساهمةموضوع: The Economic Effects of Human Rights   17/3/2010, 4:52 pm



The Economic Effects of Human Rights

Lorenz Blume
University of Marburg - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
Stefan Voigt
Institute of Law & Economics; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
December 2004


Abstract:
Economists are often skeptical concerning the economic effects of various forms of human rights: it has been argued that basic human rights can make the legal system less efficient but also that extensive social rights are incompatible with market economies. It is argued here that basic human rights are a precondition for other kinds of rights such as property and civil rights and that they are thus efficiency-enhancing. Four different groups of rights are identified. It is asked what effects they have on welfare and growth.


The transmission channels through which the different rights affect welfare and growth are identified by estimating their effects on investment in both physical and human capital and overall productivity. Basic human rights have indeed a positive effect on investment, but do not seem to contribute to productivity. Social or emancipatory rights, in turn, are not conducive to investment in physical capital but do contribute to productivity improvements. None of the four groups of rights ever has a significant negative effect on any of the economic variables here included.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Toward a Human Rights Framework for Intellectual Property   17/3/2010, 4:55 pm



Toward a Human Rights Framework for Intellectual Property

Laurence R. Helfer
Duke University - School of Law
U.C. Davis Law Review, Vol. 40, p. 971, 2007
Vanderbilt Public Law Research Paper No. 06-03


Abstract:
This Article, prepared for a Symposium on Intellectual Property and Social Justice held at the University of California at Davis School of Law in March 2006, addresses the growing intersection of human rights law and intellectual property law. Its principal point of departure is a November 2005 General Comment on "the right of everyone to benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author" - a relatively obscure provision of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The Article builds upon the analysis in the General Comment to sketch the tentative outlines of a human rights framework for intellectual property, a framework that offers a distinctive approach for mediating the two fields of law and policy.


The Article also analyzes the rapidly changing institutional environment in which states and NGOs are generating new legal rules to govern the interface between human rights and intellectual property. It focuses in particular on three recent treaty-making initiatives in three intergovernmental organizations - UNESCO, WHO, and WIPO.

These initiatives include (1) the recently adopted Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, (2) the proposed Medical Research and Development Treaty, and (3) the proposed Access to Knowledge Treaty. Each of these treaty texts draws upon international human rights law in different ways to question existing approaches to intellectual property protection and to revise the mandates of intergovernmental organizations.

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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Measuring the Effects of Human Rights Treaties   17/3/2010, 4:58 pm



Measuring the Effects of Human Rights Treaties

Derek Jinks
University of Texas School of Law
Ryan Goodman
Harvard Law School
March 2003
Harvard Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 56


Abstract:
Do human rights treaties improve human rights conditions on the ground? In the end, this critical question is empirical in character. The effectiveness of any regulatory strategy turns on whether its rules and institutions actually mitigate the problems they are designed to address. Although empirical questions require empirical study, bad data is worse than no data. In a recent study, Professor Oona Hathaway purports to quantify the effect of human rights treaty ratification on human rights violations. Her findings are striking. She contends that ratification is associated with worse human rights practices (when other important variables are held constant). Of course, it is unsurprising that some states continue to commit substantial human rights abuses even after ratifying human rights treaties. It is, however, startling to suggest that treaty membership - including the labeling, monitoring, and reporting of abuses - actually increases violations. In our view, any study advancing such wildly counterintuitive claims carries a heavy burden. While we support the empirical study of these phenomena (and indeed we rely on many such studies in formulating our critique), we identify several problems with Hathaway's project. We suggest that these problems demonstrate serious deficiencies in her empirical findings, theoretical model, and policy prescriptions.

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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: How to Influence States: Socialization and International Human Rights Law   17/3/2010, 5:02 pm



How to Influence States
Socialization and International Human Rights Law

Ryan Goodman
Harvard Law School
Derek Jinks
University of Texas School of Law
Duke Law Journal, Vol. 54, 2004


Abstract:
Regime design choices in international law turn on empirical claims about how states behave and under what conditions their behavior changes. We suggest that a central problem for human rights regimes is how best to socialize "bad actors" to incorporate globally legitimated models of state behavior and how to get "good actors" to do better. Substantial empirical evidence suggests three distinct mechanisms whereby states and institutions might influence the behavior of other states: coercion, persuasion, and acculturation. Several structural impediments preclude full institutionalization of coercion- and persuasion-based regimes in human rights law. Yet, inexplicably these models of social influence predominate in international legal studies. In this Article, we first describe in some detail the salient conceptual features of each mechanism of social influence. We then link each of the identified mechanisms to specific regime design characteristics - identifying several ways in which acculturation might occasion a rethinking of fundamental regime design problems in human rights law. Through a systematic evaluation of three design problems - conditional membership, precision of obligations, and enforcement methods - we elaborate an alternative way to conceive of regime design problems. We maintain that (1) acculturation is a conceptually distinct social process through which state behavior is influenced; and (2) the regime design recommendations issuing from this approach defy conventional wisdom in international human rights scholarship. This exercise not only recommends reexamination of policy debates in human rights law; it also provides a conceptual framework within which the costs and benefits of various design principles might be assessed. Our aim is to improve the understanding of how norms operate in international society with a view to improving the capacity of global and domestic institutions to harness the processes through which human rights cultures are built.


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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights and Intellectual Property: Conflict or Coexistence?   17/3/2010, 5:05 pm



Human Rights and Intellectual Property
Conflict or Coexistence?

Laurence R. Helfer
Duke University - School of Law
Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, Vol. 5, p. 47, 2003
Loyola-LA Legal Studies Paper No. 2003-27
Princeton Law and Public Affairs Working Paper No. 04-003


Abstract:
Human rights and intellectual property, two bodies of law that were once strangers, are becoming increasingly intimate bedfellows. Over the past three years, human rights bodies within the United Nations have devoted unprecedented attention to intellectual property issues, including patented medicines, digital copyrights, technology transfers, economic, social and cultural rights, plant variety protection, and economic development. Unlike the approaches adopted in established intellectual property lawmaking organizations such as the WTO and WIPO, the new human rights approach to intellectual property is often critical of existing standards of protection and it seeks to address legal and policy issues that intellectual property treaty makers and legislators often ignore.


In this essay, I analyze two competing frameworks that governments, NGOs, and intergovernmental organizations are using to conceptualize the intersection of human rights and intellectual property. The first approach views the two areas of law as in fundamental conflict, with strong intellectual property protection standards - in particular those of the TRIPs Agreement - undermining a broad spectrum of human rights. The second approach sees both areas of law as concerned with the same basic question: defining the appropriate scope of private monopoly power to give authors and inventors a sufficient incentive to create and innovate, while ensuring that the consuming public adequate access to the fruits of their efforts. The essay traces the evolution of these two competing approaches and explores their consequences for future international lawmaking.

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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Moral Relativism and Human Rights   17/3/2010, 5:07 pm



Moral Relativism and Human Rights

Torben Spaak
Uppsala University - Faculty of Law
Buffalo Human Rights Law Review, Vol. 13, 2007


Abstract:
Politicians, human rights activists, scholars, and others disagree about whether human rights are universally true or valid or only true or valid relative to a given culture. Whereas some defend the moral universality of human rights, others appear to believe that human rights can only be valid relative to a given culture.


The problem with this latter line of reasoning is that it appears to be premised on the assumption that the theory of moral relativism enjoins tolerance of other moral views or that acceptance of such relativism is otherwise likely to bring about such tolerance. I shall, however, argue that the theory of moral relativism does not enjoin tolerance of other moral views, that there is no reason to believe that moral relativism is otherwise likely to bring about tolerance, and that therefore it does not matter to this debate whether moral relativism is a true (or defensible) theory.

I begin by distinguishing three types of moral relativism, including so-called meta-ethical relativism, and argue that meta-ethical relativism is at the core of the cultural relativism/universalism debate (Section 2). I then offer some arguments in support of metaethical relativism (Section 3). Having done that, I proceed to consider the relation between meta-ethical relativism and tolerance (Section 4) and between meta-ethical relativism and the importance of moral considerations (Section 5). The article concludes with some reflections on the prerequisites of cultural imperialism (Section 6) and the enforcement of international human rights law (Section 7).
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بانده ولا بيجينى صوت

ما تردى يا امه بنظره حتى من عنيكى

د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Disability Human Rights   17/3/2010, 5:10 pm



Disability Human Rights

Michael Stein
William & Mary Law School; Harvard Law School
California Law Review, Vol. 95, 2007


Abstract:
Responding to the absence of an international treaty expressly protecting people with disabilities, the United Nations is sponsoring a disability-based human rights convention. The Article examines the implications of adding disability to the existing canon of human rights by adopting a disability human rights paradigm. It argues that, because disability rights necessarily invoke civil and political rights, as well as economic, social, and cultural rights, a disability framework presents a strong exemplar for viewing established human rights protections as being similarly indivisible. Hence, groups whose rights historically have been divided, for example, women, could be strengthened. Moreover, utilizing a disability-based perspective could also extend human rights to currently unprotected individuals, including sexual minorities and the poor.


Building on (as well as critiquing) the feminist political philosophy of Martha Nussbaum, the Article maintains that the "capability approach" provides a cogent space for understanding the scope of disability-related, as well as general, human rights. It demonstrates that, because a capabilities framework values each person as his or her own end, it can be combined with a disability framework to offer a normative theory of human rights that enables individuals to flourish more completely. The Article concludes with some thoughts on the broader ramifications of viewing disability as a universal experience. In arguing that disability-based rights concepts should be extended to other groups (rather than the reverse), the Article stakes out a unique perspective.
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: From Human Rights to Fundamental Rights - Consequences of a Conceptual Distinction   17/3/2010, 5:12 pm



From Human Rights to Fundamental Rights
Consequences of a Conceptual Distinction

Gianluigi Palombella
New York University - Straus Institute for the Advanced Study of Law & Justice; University of Parma - Faculty of Law
December 2006
European University Institute LAW Working Paper No. 2006/34


Abstract:
This article introduces a peculiar distinction between "human" rights and "fundamental" rights, explaining through diverse areas, the role that the difference can play. Rights are loaded with contrasting properties and burdens, opposing features and values (neutral, pre-political, negotiable, democratic, etc.). On the contrary, we should accept - on one side - human rights as moral visions of what is due to human beings, deontological imperatives, even if abstract. But on the other side we cannot ignore the ethical problems: e.g. those resulting from their blind implementation.


We need to enhance the institutional, legal and ethical-political meaning of "fundamental" rights, i.e. those which are assigned a meta-normative role in a legal order and an ultimate value in the corresponding social and ethical context. The article shows also how the use of these definitions can clear some theoretical misunderstandings, improve our critical analysis and help in explanation of real processes. This article will be published in "Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie," in 2007.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights Fundamentalisms   17/3/2010, 5:14 pm



Human Rights Fundamentalisms

David Kinley
University of Sydney - Faculty of Law
Sydney Law Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 545-575, 2007
Sydney Law School Research Paper No. 07/09


Abstract:
At the same time as the power and prevalence of human rights is growing within political, legal and social discourse, their foundations are being undermined by two insidious forces - one that values human rights too little, and the other which values them too much.


Especially in the new world order of post 9/11, human rights are seen by those in the first camp to be dispensable privileges, while those in the second camp over-state the human rights cause and are resistant to any sort of criticism of their form or substance. This lecture critiques the dimensions and dangers of both these fundamentalist perspectives, in Australian and international contexts, and offers some suggestions as to how human rights might be rescued from their debilitating grasp.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Transnational Corporations and Human Rights   17/3/2010, 5:16 pm




Transnational Corporations and Human Rights
Oliver De Schutter
Hart Publishing 2006
440 pages
1.1 MB


This volume offers a systematic overview of the different tools through which the human rights accountability of transnational corporations may be improved.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Criminology, Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples   17/3/2010, 5:19 pm



Criminology, Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

Chris Cunneen
Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales
CRIME AND HUMAN RIGHTS, Parmentier, and E. G. M. Weitekamp, eds., pp. 239-263, Elsevier, Oxford, 2007
UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2008-32


Abstract:
Criminology, human rights and Indigenous peoples: how do we understand the connections between these three terms? For too long the voices arguing to connect criminology with human rights were isolated and marginalized. At best, the possible links were seen as peripheral to the main concerns of criminology. At worst, bringing a human rights understanding to definitions of crime and criminal justice was seen as undermining criminology’s search for scientific status. And as for Indigenous people? They were seen as part of the ‘‘crime problem’’, a segment of the problem population whose criminality needed explanation. Human rights apparently had nothing to do with their offending behaviour.


However, over the last decade or so the intellectual terrain has shifted significantly. As a result of these developments we can see at least three strands to how we might bring criminology to a more intellectually robust understanding of Indigenous people and human rights. The first point is that Indigenous people have been victims of profound historical injustices and abuses of human rights which can be at least partially understood as state crime. The second point is that contemporary justice systems are often seen in the context of the abuse of Indigenous people’s human rights. The third strand is an analysis of how claims to specific Indigenous rights impact on current criminal justice processes, and how those claims might broaden our understanding of reform and change.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights and Comparative Foreign Policy   17/3/2010, 5:24 pm




Human Rights and Comparative Foreign Policy
David Forsythe
United Nations University Press 2000
400 pages
1.5 MB


Human Rights and Comparative Foreign Policy is the first book in English to examine the place of human rights in the foreign policies of a wide range of states during contemporary times. The book is also unique in utilizing a common framework of analysis for all 10 of the country or regional studies covered. This framework treats foreign policy as the result of a two-level game in which both domestic and foreign factors have to be considered. Leading experts from around the world analyze both liberal democratic and other foreign policies on human rights.

A general introduction and a systematic conclusion add to the coherence of the project. The authors note the increasing attention given to human rights issues in contemporary foreign policy. At the same time, they argue that most states, including liberal democratic states that identify with human rights, are reluctant most of the time to elevate human rights concerns to a level equal to that of traditional security and economic concerns. When states do seek to integrate human rights with these and other concerns, the result is usually great inconsistency in patterns of foreign policy.

The book further argues that different states bring different emphases to their human rights diplomacy, because of such factors as national political culture and perceived national interests. In the last analysis states can be compared along two dimensions pertaining to human rights: extent to which they are oriented toward an international rather than national conception of rights; and extent to which they are oriented toward international rather than national action to protect human rights. UNU Series on Foundations of Peace

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Or
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: The Globalization of Human Rights Law: Why Do Human Rights Need International Law   17/3/2010, 5:26 pm



The Globalization of Human Rights Law
Why Do Human Rights Need International Law

Filip Spagnoli
National Bank of Belgium
Texas Wesleyan Law Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Spring 2008


Abstract:
This paper examines the globalization of human rights law, a rather recent legal development which has occurred in two parallel ways: human rights have become part of most national constitutions and have been enshrined in widely accepted international treaties. The central question of the paper is the utility of international law in the field of human rights protection.


The conclusion is that ideally human rights protection should be a national matter, but in an imperfect world, with failing national protection, international human rights protection is a necessary alternative. The paper examines how, in an imperfect world, international law can contribute to human rights protection, and also how it hinders this goal. It looks at the problems of immunity, self-determination and non-intervention, monism versus dualism, ius cogens, international monitoring and other ways in which international law can have a positive or negative impact on the protection of human rights.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction   17/3/2010, 5:28 pm




Human Rights
A Very Short Introduction
Andrew Clapham
Oxford University Press, USA 2007
144 pages
7,7 Mb


Today it is usually not long before a problem gets expressed as a human rights issue. An appeal to human rights in the face of injustice can be a heartfelt and morally justified demand for some, while for others it remains merely an empty slogan.

Taking an international perspective and focusing on highly topical issues such as torture, arbitrary detention, privacy, health and discrimination, this Very Short Introduction will help readers to understand for themselves the controversies and complexities behind this vitally relevant issue. Looking at the philosophical justification for rights, the historical origins of human rights and how they are formed in law, Andrew Clapham explains what our human rights actually are, what they might be, and where the human rights movement is heading.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Institutional Approach to Human Rights Protection: Indian Experience   17/3/2010, 5:31 pm



Institutional Approach to Human Rights Protection
Indian Experience

Sanjay Pandey
Amity Law School
May 13, 2005


Abstract:
With the advent of National Human Rights Commission, human rights protection has taken a leap in India. The most important facet is institutionalization of the human rights protection process and mechanism. But a case is made out always regarding incompleteness of the protection and proliferation process when institutional requirements are not clearly emphasized by the statutory mandate or the lack of civil-political will for upholding human rights becomes writ large. The process of institutionalization takes a protection regime close to people and adds value to the system of governance.


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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights In Brief   17/3/2010, 5:33 pm




Human Rights In Brief
Publisher: America.gov 2008
42 pages
15,5 mb


Deep in the mind and spirit of human beings lies the conviction that each and every person has rights, including a right to freedom from oppression, freedom to make reasonable choices, and freedom from cruelty. Nearly everybody feels this way, instinctively, even if they do not believe such rights are easy to obtain.

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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights and Economic Liberalization   17/3/2010, 5:35 pm



Human Rights and Economic Liberalization

Art Carden
Rhodes College
Robert A. Lawson
Auburn University - Department of Finance
December 4, 2009


Abstract:
Using several case studies and data from the Economic Freedom of the World annual report and from the CIRI Human Rights Data Project, we estimate the effect of human rights abuses on economic liberalization. The data suggest that human rights abuses reduce rather than accelerate the pace of economic liberalization.


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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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مُساهمةموضوع: Human Rights and Rule of Law: What's the Relationship?   17/3/2010, 5:43 pm



Human Rights and Rule of Law
What's the Relationship?

Randall Peerenboom
La Trobe University, Faculty of Law and Management ; Oxford University Centre for Socio-Legal Studies
Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 36, 2005
UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 05-31


Abstract:
This article considers several explanations for the international human rights movement's sudden heightened attention to rule of law.


The human rights movement has increasingly encountered conceptual, normative and political challenges. Perhaps, as de Mello suggested, rule of law will be a "fruitful principle to guide us toward agreement and results," and "a touchstone for us in spreading the culture of human rights."
We still live in a world where widespread human rights violations are the norm rather than the exception. Rule of law is seen as directly integral to the implementation of rights.


Rule of law may also be indirectly related to better rights protection in that rule of law is associated with economic development, which is related to better rights performance.
Rule of law is integral to and necessary for democracy and good governance. Attempts to democratize without a functional legal system in place have resulted in social disorder.
Rule of law is said to facilitate geopolitical stability and global peace. According to some, it may help prevent wars from occurring in the first place. It also provides guidelines for how war is carried out, and is central to the establishment of a rights-respecting post-conflict regime.


Post 9-11 concerns over terrorism have also focused attention on rule of law.
In addition, rule of law provides a rhetorical basis for challenging the world's sole reigning superpower.
Taking each of these factors in turn, I critically analyze the relationship between rule of law and human rights. The relationship is complex and defies easy summary across such a broad range of issues. Nevertheless, a provisional summary that highlights some of the key findings and conclusions may be helpful. First, on the whole, rule of law is desirable. However, it is clearly no panacea for any of these problems.


Second, rule of law is more useful in addressing some concerns than others. Appealing to rule of law will do little to resolve the conceptual and normative difficulties at the core of the human rights agenda.
Third, the empirical evidence to support the assertion that rule of law leads to more rights and wellbeing is limited, and subject to doubts about causality. There is good reason to believe that wealth rather than rule of law is mainly responsible for better rights performance, although rule of law may also have some independent impact.


Fourth, although rule of law and liberal democracy generally go hand in hand, they need not. Rule of law is possible in non-democratic states, and in democratic but non-liberal states. Rule of law may proceed, and is generally a precondition for, democratic consolidation.
Fifth, we should not put too much faith in the ability of rule of law to prevent war, limit atrocities during war, or rein in a superpower bent on going its own way.


Finally, rule of law is only one component of a just society. In some cases, the values served by rule of law will need to give way to other values. Invoking rule of law in most cases signals the beginning of normative and political debate, not the end of it.
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د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Universal Human Rights: Origins and Development   17/3/2010, 5:45 pm




Universal Human Rights
Origins and Development
Stephen James
LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC 2007
302 pages
1.25 MB


James offers a comprehensive, interdisciplinary account of the origins and development of universal human rights from the earliest days to 1966, when the Covenants were added to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. His work has significance for debates about the universality of international human rights law in a culturally diverse world, and is a contribution to the defense of the universality of that body of law.

The book challenges the view that the international human rights regime was a hegemonic imposition by the West, and is to that degree illegitimate today. The book demonstrates both the diverse origins of the regime, and the significant Western resistance to it. In each period the book examines, there was support for universal human rights from culturally diverse states, national and international NGOs, and activists.
أدع لنا بالخير وها هو الرابط
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


Or
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

Or
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

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قربت أموت

بانده عليكى بأعلى صوت

دفينى بحنانك لاموت

بانده ولا بيجينى صوت

ما تردى يا امه بنظره حتى من عنيكى

د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Rights on the Rise: International Mobilization for New Human Rights   17/3/2010, 5:47 pm



Rights on the Rise
International Mobilization for New Human Rights

Clifford Bob
Duquesne University
September 4, 2005


Abstract:
In recent years, aggrieved groups around the world have portrayed their problems as human rights issues. While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is expansive, for most of its history civil and political rights have garnered the bulk of resources. Yet today groups such as the disabled, gays and lesbians, Third World slumdwellers, South Asian Dalits (Untouchables), AIDS patients, and victims of corporate malfeasance - all seek to establish rights to protect their groups. In many cases, their efforts have met resistance from governments and corporations. Even apparent allies among human rights NGOs have voiced misgivings, arguing that proliferation of new rights vitiates core concerns.


My paper proposes a framework for understanding the emergence of new rights, those omitted from or given little prominence in the UDHR. The process involves three phases: First, groups frame long-felt grievances as rights. Why and how they do so has received little scholarly attention. Second, they seek to place their claims on the international agenda, chiefly by convincing gatekeepers in major human rights NGOs to endorse new norms. This seldom-examined stage is crucial since a handful of NGOs exercise great power in certifying rights. Third, assuming key NGOs adopt a norm, they promote it in international arenas where they face strong opposition from states and non-state actors espousing contrary norms.

To make this argument, I analyze the recent successes, failures, and strategies of Dalits and the physically disabled as they seek new rights internationally. My analysis challenges dominant theories of transnational relations and social movements. In contrast to Keck and Sikkink's concept of cohesive transnational advocacy networks, I distinguish within networks between established NGO gatekeepers and new rights claimants. I find that NGOs' organizational interests make them less receptive than often assumed, forcing claimants to adapt themselves to NGO predispositions. Moreover, unlike constructivists, I argue that logics of appropriateness and argument cannot explain norm acceptance. Bearers of new norms face opposition from transnational counter-movements that champion equally appropriate counter-norms. Even the rules of argument and participation are contested - a far cry from the deliberative truth-seeking envisioned by constructivists.
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قربت أموت

بانده عليكى بأعلى صوت

دفينى بحنانك لاموت

بانده ولا بيجينى صوت

ما تردى يا امه بنظره حتى من عنيكى

د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Amnesty, Human Rights and Political Transitions   17/3/2010, 5:50 pm




Amnesty, Human Rights and Political Transitions
Bridging the Peace and Justice Divide
Louise Mallinder
Hart Publishing (UK) 2008
586 pages
10.79 MB


Amnesty laws are political tools used since ancient times by states wishing to quell dissent, introduce reforms, or achieve peaceful relationships with their enemies. In recent years, they have become contentious due to a perception that they violate international law, particularly the rights of victims, and contribute to further violence. This view is disputed by political negotiators who often argue that amnesty is a necessary price to pay in order to achieve a stable, peaceful, and equitable system of government.

This book aims to investigate whether an amnesty necessarily entails a violation of a state's international obligations, or whether an amnesty, accompanied by alternative justice mechanisms, can in fact contribute positively to both peace and justice.This study began by constructing an extensive Amnesty Law Database that contains information on 421 amnesty processes in 127 countries introduced since the Second World War. The database and chapter structure were designed to correspond with the key aspects of an amnesty: why it was introduced, who benefited from its protection, which crimes it covered, and whether it was conditional.

In assessing conditional amnesties, related transitional justice processes such as selective prosecutions, truth commissions, community-based justice mechanisms, lustration, and reparations programmes were considered. Subsequently, the jurisprudence relating to amnesty from national courts, international tribunals, and courts in third states was addressed.The information gathered revealed considerable disparity in state practice relating to amnesties, with some aiming to provide victims with a remedy, and others seeking to create complete impunity for perpetrators. To date, few legal trends relating to amnesty laws are emerging, although it appears that amnesties offering blanket, unconditional immunity for state agents have declined.

Overall, amnesties have increased in popularity since the 1990s and consequently, rather than trying to dissuade states from using this tool of transitional justice, this book argues that international actors should instead work to limit the more negative forms of amnesty by encouraging states to make them conditional and to introduce complementary programmes to repair the harm and prevent a repetition of the crimes.
أدع لنا بالخير وها هو الرابط
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


Or
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
قربت أموت

بانده عليكى بأعلى صوت

دفينى بحنانك لاموت

بانده ولا بيجينى صوت

ما تردى يا امه بنظره حتى من عنيكى

د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Local Rule: Decentralisation and Human Rights   17/3/2010, 5:52 pm



Local Rule: Decentralisation and Human Rights

ICHRP International Council on Human Rights Policy
International Council on Human Rights Policy (ICHRP)
LOCAL RULE: DECENTRALISATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS, ICHRP, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002


Abstract:
Local governments run services that are vital to the quality of people’s lives: schools, health centres and hospitals, water supply, sanitation, roads, street lighting, local policing, settlement of land and family disputes. To promote development, and strengthen democracy, in recent years numerous governments have reformed local-tier authorities and strengthened their powers.


Development and governance experts have studied decentralisation extensively. However, its influence on human rights has received little attention. What happens when local authorities assume responsibility for education, policing or land use? Are minorities and poor communities better protected? Does devolution genuinely improve political accountability or entrench the power of local elites? Based on seven case studies, the report argues that local government officials and human rights advocates should think more seriously about the links between local government and human rights, and suggests how adopting a human rights approach might make decentralisation efforts more successful.
أدع لنا بالخير وها هو الرابط
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]




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قربت أموت

بانده عليكى بأعلى صوت

دفينى بحنانك لاموت

بانده ولا بيجينى صوت

ما تردى يا امه بنظره حتى من عنيكى

د. فـرغلى هــارون
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://social.subject-line.com
 
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