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 On the Targeting and Impact of Food Aid, PhD

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
د. فرغلى هارون
المدير العـام

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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 3278
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: On the Targeting and Impact of Food Aid, PhD   12/11/2010, 2:46 pm




On the Targeting and Impact of Food Aid
Are Food Aid Distributions Based on Need and is Food Aid Reducing Child Hunger and Child Mortality
By Kassebaum, Tina Marie
Doctor of Philosophy, Ohio State University, Sociology, 2009.
Pages: 215p.
1.63 MB PDF file


Abstract:
On the Targeting and Impact of Food Aid: Are Food Aid Distributions Based on Need and is Food Aid Reducing Child Hunger and Child Mortality The
With approximately 9.7 million deaths of children under-five in 2006 and over 6.5 million child deaths due to malnutrition and hunger-related diseases, child wellbeing in the developing world is a crucial and immediate concern. One way the international community can contribute to the reduction of child hunger is through the distribution of food aid. Three forms of food aid currently exist: (1) program aid, which is untargeted, project aid; (2) project aid, which is anchored in development projects; and (3) emergency aid which is targeted at famines, natural disasters and refugee situations. Food aid has been criticized for its inefficiency, failure to reach targeted populations, and susceptibility to donor bias. However, in the last decade, much improvement has been made in improving the distribution, shipment, and targeting of food aid. A descriptive review of food aid data from 1988 to 2007 reveals that there has been a major shift from program to project and emergency aid and that, while geopolitical factors are still very much present in food aid distributions, there appears to be a marked improvement in targeting aid, especially emergency aid.


This dissertation addresses two questions: Is food aid directed at populations in need? Second, does food aid, especially emergency aid, reduce child hunger? The first question is addressed with a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis of the effects of hunger on types of food aid. The evidence suggests that child hunger predicts both emergency and project aid but does not bear on program aid. Program aid is directed to semi-democracies, suggesting in line with world polity theory that aid givers prefer regimes institutionally similar to themselves.

International sanctions by the developed countries deter program aid, indicating international disapproval of targeted countries, but increase the likelihood of receiving emergency aid, perhaps because of links to humanitarian emergencies. Regime corruption hinders emergency aid while military dependence on Western arms facilitates emergency aid. Genopoliticides deter emergency and project aid, suggesting these countries are shunned by the major world powers.

The second question is addressed with a lagged panel analysis of 2005 child wellbeing. This shows that both emergency and project food aid “trickle down” to benefit children in terms of hunger and mortality. Emergency aid is stronger, reflecting improvements in the targeting of emergency food aid. These problems are also addressed by economic growth, stable democracy, access to clean water, and breastfeeding.

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On the Targeting and Impact of Food Aid, PhD
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